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    2015.6 英語四級考試真題試卷(第三套)閱讀


    Questions 36 to 45 are based on the following passage.

    As a teacher, you could bring the community into your classroom in many ways. The parents and grandparents of your students are resources and __36__ for their children. They can be __37__ teachers of their own traditions and histories. Immigrant parents could talk about their country of __38__ and why they emigrated to the United States. Parents can be invited to talk about their jobs or a community project. Parents, of course, are not the only community resources. Employees at local businesses and staff at community agencies have __39__ information to share in classrooms.

    Field trips provide another opportunity to know the community. Many students don't have the opportunity to __40__ concerts or visit museums or historical sites except through field trips. A school district should have __41__ for selecting and conducting field trips. Families must be made __42__ of field trips and give permission for their children to participate.

    Through school projects, students can learn to be __43__ in community projects ranging from planting trees to cleaning up a park to assisting elderly people. Students, __44__ older ones, might conduct research on a community need that could lead to action by a city council or state government. Some schools require students to provide community service by __45__ in a nursing home, child care center or government agency. These projects help students understand their responsibility to the larger community.

    A) assets
    B) attend
    C) aware
    D) especially
    E) excellent
    F) expensive
    G) guidelines
    H) involved
    I) joining
    J) naturally
    K) observe
    L) origin
    M) recruited
    N) up-to-date
    O) volunteering

    參考答案:AELNB GCHDO

    Reaping the Rewards of Risk-Taking

    A) Since Steve Jobs resigned as chief executive of Apple, much has been said about him as a peerless business leader who has created immense wealth for shareholders, and guided the design of hit products that are transforming entire industries, like music and mobile communications.

    B) All true, but let's think different, to borrow the Apple marketing slogan of years back. Let's look at Mr. Jobs as a role model.

    C) Above all, he is an innovator (創新者). His creative force is seen in products such as the iPod, iPhone, and iPad, and in new business models for pricing and distributing music and mobile software online. Studies of innovation come to the same conclusion: you can't engineer innovation, but you can increase the odds of it occurring. And Mr. Jobs' career can be viewed as a consistent pursuit of improving those odds, both for himself and the companies he has led. Mr. Jobs, of course, has enjoyed singular success. But innovation, broadly defined, is the crucial ingredient in all economic progress-higher growth for nations, more competitive products for companies, and more prosperous careers for individuals. And Mr. Jobs, many experts say, exemplifies what works in the innovation game.

    D) " We can look at and leam from Steve Jobs what the essence of American innovation is," says John Kao, an innovation consultant to corporations and governments. Many other nations, Mr. John Kao notes, are now ahead of the United States in producing what are considered the raw materials of innovation. These include government financing for scientific research, national policies to support emerging industries, educational achievement, engineers and scientists graduated, even the speeds of Internet broadband service.

    E) Yet what other nations typically lack, Mr. Kao adds, is a social environment that encourages diversity, experimentation, risk-taking, and combining skills from many fields into products that he calls " recombinant mash-ups (打碎重組)," like the iPhone, which redefined the smartphone category. "The culture of other countries doesn't support the kind of innovation that Steve Jobs exemplifies, as America does," Mr. John Kao says.

    F) Workers of every rank are told these days that wide-ranging curiosity and continuous learning are vital to thriving in the modern economy. Formal education matters, career counselors say, but real-life experience is often even more valuable.

    G) An adopted child, growing up in Silicon Valley, Mr. Jobs displayed those traits early on. He was fascinated by electronics as a child, building Heathkit do-it-yourself projects, like radios. Mr. Jobs dropped out of Reed College after only a semester and traveled around India in search of spiritual enlightenment, before returning to Silicon Valley to found Apple with his friend, Stephen Wozniak, an engineering wizard (奇才). Mr. Jobs was forced out of Apple in 1985, went off and founded two other companies, Next and Pixar, before returning to Apple in 1996 and becoming chief executive in 1997.

    H) His path was unique, but innovation experts say the pattern of exploration is not unusual. "It's often people like Steve Jobs who can draw from a deep reservoir of diverse experiences that often generate breakthrough ideas and insights," says Hal Gregersen, a professor at the European Institute of Business Administration.

    I) Mr. Gregersen is a co-author of a new book, The Innovator's DNA, which is based on an eight-year study of 5,000 entrepreneurs(創業者) and executives worldwide. His two collaborators and co-authors are Jeff Dyer, a professor at Brigham Young University, and Clayton Christensen, a professor at the Harvard Business School, whose 1997 book The Innovator's Dilemma popularized the concept of "disruptive (顛覆性的) innovation. "

    J) The academics identify five traits that are common to the disruptive innovators: questioning, experimenting, observing, associating and networking. Their bundle of characteristics echoes the ceaseless curiosity and willingness to take risks noted by other experts. Networking, Mr. Hal Gregersen explains, is less about career-building relationships than a consistent search for new ideas. Associating, he adds, is the ability to make idea-producing connections by linking concepts from different disciplines.

    K) "Innovators engage in these mental activities regularly," Mr. Gregersen says. "It's a habit for them. " Innovative companies, according to the authors, typically enjoy higher valuations in the stock market, which they call an "innovation premium " It is calculated by estimating the share of a company's value that cannot be accounted for by its current products and cash flow. The innovation premium tries to quantify (量化) investors' bets that a company will do even better in the future because of innovation.

    L) Apple, by their calculations, had a 37 percent innovation premium during Mr. Jobs' first term with the company. His years in exile resulted in a 31 percent innovation discount. After his return, Apple's fortunes improved gradually at first, and improved markedly starting in 2005, yielding a 52 percent innovation premium since then.

    M) There is no conclusive proof, but Mr. Hal Gregersen says it is unlikely that Mr. Jobs could have reshaped industries beyond computing, as he has done in his second term at Apple, without the experience outside the company, especially at Pixar-the computer-animation (動畫制作) studio that created a string of critically and commercially successful movies, such as "Toy Story" and "Up. "

    N) Mr. Jobs suggested much the same thing during a commencement address to the graduating class at Stanford University in 2005. "It turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me," he told the students. Mr. Jobs also spoke of perseverance (堅持) and will power. "Sometimes life hits you in the head with a brick," he said. "Don't lose faith. "

    O) Mr. Jobs ended his commencement talk with a call to innovation, both in one's choice of work and in one's life. Be curious, experiment, take risks, he said to the students. His advice was emphasized by the words on the back of the final edition of The Whole Earth Catalog, which he quoted: "Stay hungry. Stay foolish. " "And," Mr. Jobs said, "I have always wished that for myself. And now, as you graduate to begin anew, I wish that for you. "

    46. Steve Jobs called on Stanford graduates to innovate in his commencement address.
    47. Steve Jobs considered himself lucky to have been fired once by Apple.
    48. Steve Jobs once used computers to make movies that were commercial hits.
    49. Many governments have done more than the US government in providing the raw materials for innovation.
    50. Great innovators are good at connecting concepts from various academic fields.
    51. Innovation is vital to driving economic progress.
    52. America has a social environment that is particularly favorable to innovation.
    53. Innovative ideas often come from diverse experiences.
    54. Real-life experience is often more important than formal education for career success.
    55. Apple's fortunes suffered from an innovation discount during Jobs' absence.

    參考答案:ONMDJ CEHFL

    Passage One
    Questions 56 to 60 are based on the following passage.

    Junk food is everywhere. We're eating way too much of it. Most of us know what we're doing and yet we do it anyway.

    So here's a suggestion offered by two researchers at the Rand Corporation: Why not take a lesson from alcohol control policies and apply them to where food is sold and how it's displayed?

    " Many policy measures to control obesity (肥胖癥) assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods," note the two researchers.

    " In contrast," the researchers continue, " many regulations that don't assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance-like food-of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. "

    The research references studies of people's behavior with food and alcohol and results of alcohol restrictions, and then lists five regulations that the researchers think might be promising if applied to junk foods. Among them:

    Density restrictions; licenses to sell alcohol aren't handed out unplanned to all comers but are allotted (分配) based on the number of places in an area that already sell alcohol. These make alcohol less easy to get and reduce the number of psychological cues to drink.

    Similarly, the researchers say, being presented with junk food stimulates our desire to eat it. So why not limit the density of food outlets, particularly ones that sell food rich in empty calories? And why not limit sale of food in places that aren't primarily food stores?

    Display and sales restrictions; California has a rule prohibiting alcohol displays near the cash registers in gas stations, and in most places you can't buy alcohol at drive-through facilities. At supermarkets, food companies pay to have their wares in places where they're easily seen. One could remove junk food to the back of the store and ban them from the shelves at checkout lines. The other measures include restricting portion sizes, taxing and prohibiting special price deals for junk foods, and placing warning labels on the products.

    56. What does the author say about junk food?
    A) People should be educated not to eat too much.
    B) It is widely consumed despite its ill reputation.
    C) Its temptation is too strong for people to resist.
    D) It causes more harm than is generally realized.

    57. What do the Rand researchers think of many of the policy measures to control obesity?
    A) They should be implemented effectively.
    B) They provide misleading information.
    C) They are based on wrong assumptions.
    D) They help people make rational choices.

    58. Why do policymakers of alcohol control place density restrictions?
    A) Few people are able to resist alcohol's temptations.
    B) There are already too many stores selling alcohol.
    C) Drinking strong alcohol can cause social problems.
    D) Easy access leads to customers' over-consumption.

    59. What is the purpose of California's rule about alcohol display in gas stations?
    A) To effectively limit the density of alcohol outlets.
    B) To help drivers to give up the habit of drinking.
    C) To prevent possible traffic jams in nearby areas.
    D) To get alcohol out of drivers' immediate sight.

    60. What is the general guideline the Rand researchers suggest about junk food control?
    A) Guiding people to make rational choices about food.
    B) Enhancing people's awareness of their own health.
    C) Borrowing ideas from alcohol control measures.
    D) Resorting to economic, legal and psychological means.

    Passage Two
    Questions 61 to 65 are based on the following passage.

    Kodak's decision to file for bankruptcy (破產) protection is a sad, though not unexpected, turning point for a leading American corporation that pioneered consumer photography and dominated the film market for decades, but ultimately failed to adapt to the digital revolution.

    Although many attribute Kodak's downfall to " complacency (自滿)," that explanation doesn't acknowledge the lengths to which the company went to reinvent itself. Decades ago, Kodak anticipated that digital photography would overtake film-and in fact, Kodak invented the first digital camera in 1975-but in a fateful decision, the company chose to shelf its new discovery to focus on its traditional film business.

    It wasn't that Kodak was blind to the future, said Rebecca Henderson, a professor at Harvard Business School, but rather that it failed to execute on a strategy to confront it. By the time the company realized its mistake, it was too late.

    Kodak is an example of a firm that was very much aware that they had to adapt, and spent a lot of money trying to do so, but ultimately failed. Large companies have a difficult time switching to new markets because there is a temptation to put existing assets into the new businesses.

    Although Kodak anticipated the inevitable rise of digital photography, its corporate (企業的) culture was too rooted in the successes of the past for it to make the clean break necessary to fully embrace the future. They were a company stuck in time. Their history was so important to them. Now their history has become a liability.

    Kodak's downfall over the last several decades was dramatic. In 1976, the company commanded 90% of the market for photographic film and 85% of the market for cameras. But the 1980s brought new competition from Japanese film company Fuji Photo, which undermined Kodak by offering lower prices for film and photo supplies. Kodak's decision not to pursue the role of official film for the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics was a major miscalculation. The bid went instead to Fuji, which exploited its sponsorship to win a permanent foothold in the marketplace.

    61. What do we learn about Kodak?
    A) It went bankrupt all of a sudden.
    B) It is approaching its downfall.
    C) It initiated the digital revolution in the film industry.
    D) It is playing the dominant role in the film market.

    62. Why does the author mention Kodak's invention of the first digital camera?
    A) To show its early attempt to reinvent itself.
    B) To show its effort to overcome complacency.
    C) To show its quick adaptation to the digital revolution.
    D) To show its will to compete with Japan's Fuji Photo.

    63. Why do large companies have difficulty switching to new markets?
    A) They find it costly to give up their existing assets.
    B) They tend to be slow in confronting new challenges.
    C) They are unwilling to invest in new technology.
    D) They are deeply stuck in their glorious past.

    64. What does the author say Kodak's history has become?
    A) A burden.
    B) A mirror.
    C) A joke.
    D) A challenge.

    65. What was Kodak's fatal mistake?
    A) Its blind faith in traditional photography.
    B) Its failure to see Fuji Photo's emergence.
    C) Its refusal to sponsor the 1984 Olympics.
    D) Its overconfidence in its www.702iv.com.

    參考答案 | 聽力錄音

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